3D Printing And 4D Printing-New Dimension In Printing
Print media is one of the most prime media in the industry. The printing press was first created by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century. However, its presence in the world became more vital with time as it evolved. Today we will discuss the two most prominent print of the era namely 3D printing and 4D printing.
What Is 3D Printing?
As the name implies it is a 3-dimensional printing technique. In other words, here we make a 3-dimensional solid object from a digital file. It is also known as the additive process as here a 3D printing is done by adding multiple layers until the object is created. Over the last few decades, it is playing a valuable role in industries. However, it’s upgraded version has entered the game.
History Of 3D Printing:-
The first patent for 3D printing was granted in 1986. Its almost 40years old but still looks brand new and still plays a vital role in the industry. Let, us know the history of 3D printing in details-
Stereolithography( SLA), similarly known as 3D printing. Initially, printers used to call it as Rapid Prototyping, it was a bit tough and vast term. Hence, ‘3D printing’ was invented and people started adopting it. Few people learned the full potential, the capability of 3D printing ago then. The man who firstly filed a patent was Dr. Hideo Kodama, a Japanese lawyer. However, administrations negated his application as he failed to file the full requirements of the patent on time.
Four years later, he along with a French Engineer team decided to give it a try. Consequently, they did not have ample interest in 3D printing and soon withdrew their mission. Thereafter their withdrawal of the mission someone else thought of giving it a try. He was an American inventor, Charles Hull and he was the one who precisely created the 3D printing machine which prints an actual picture out of the computer file.
How Does A 3D Printer Work?
- 3D modeling software:- This process starts with making an illustrated image of the object which is to be printed and it is done by using CAD software.
- Slicing to the 3D printer:- Here the model is being sliced or divided into thousands part with the slicing software.
- The 3D printing process: – A nozzle moves back-and-forth while dispersing a wax or plastic-like polymer layer-by-layer, waiting for that layer to dry, then adding the next level. It nearly adds hundreds or thousands of 2D prints on top of one another to make a three-dimensional object. It acts as a traditional inject printer and is the final step to create a 3D printing.
What Is 4D Printing?
Again as the name says it is a 4dimensional printing that uses the same techniques CAD which are used by 3D and it is also known as 4D bioprinting, active origami, or shape morphing system. It is hence a type of programmable matter, where after the fabrication method, the printed product reacts with parameters within the setting (humidity, temperature, etc.,) and changes its form, therefore. The 4D print has been introduced in 2012, since then it has gained enormous vogue.
History Of 4D Printing:-
4D printing was first termed by Skylar Tibbits, a computer scientist, and MIT professor during a presentation at the TED conference. Tibbits is known as the pioneer of 4D printing. He and his team had experimented with a self-assembly technique that develops cutting-edge concepts. Many of his projects like smart textiles, transformable architecture, self-assembling mobile phones are still going on.
- Future of 4D printing:-Research and Development are still going on for 4D printing technology which is expected to be started soon. 4D printing has its advantages which are why is why it will take over the 3D printing in the future.
- Application of 3D printing are:-Self-repair piping system:- In the actual world, 4D printing will be pipes of a plumbing system that reversal their diameter in reaction to the flow rate and water demand also pipes will automatically heal themselves if they smash or break.
- Self-assembling furniture:- 4D printing is so powerful that it would be able to print a flat board that will curl up into a chair by just putting in water or light in it.
- XL 4D printing in peak conditions:- In peak situations, such as space where 3D printing is not able to process due to cost, efficiency, energy, 4D printing will do that as they could transform their shape and repair themselves in bad weather conditions too.
- Fashion:- Self-Assembly Printing Lab from MIT is studying the possible application of 4D printing technology. Their idea is clothing or shoes to change according to the weather conditions.
- Medical:- In the medical industry, it will be able to design stents, which would take apart through the human body and travel to the stent reach their goal and open up.
How Does 4D Printing Work?
4D printing is easy to make. They only use4D printing technology uses commercial 3D printers, such as Polyjet 3D printers. This input which is a “smart material”, can be either a hydrogel or a shape memory polymer.
Difference Between 3D Print And 4D Print:-
- Parameter:- Its printing parameter is only length, width, and height. However, 4D printing’s parameter is length, width, height, and time.
- Characterization:- 3D printing is made to give a real look to the object whereas 4D printing is to make the object look abstract.
- Mathematics:- Mathematics used in 3D printing is x,y, and z-axis. However, the mathematics used in 4D printing is a 4dimension vector.
- Geometrical bodies:- Geometrical bodies used in 3D printing is a cube, pyramid, sphere, and cylinder whereas the geometrical body used in 4D printing is only 4-polytopes.
- Printing:- This is a model printing whereas 4D print is used for those 3D prints which are to be reacted in the environment.
To sum up, print media is an extremely vast topic. Printing itself contains many dimensions. It has evolved and will continue evolving. We witness many such prints in our day to day life.