Basic Python Concepts to learn in 2020
A python is a high-level object-oriented programming language. It consists of many concepts that encourage the reuse of code in the program. Some of the basic python concepts in programming are Database, Networking, and Multithreading. Since, we have already discussed Python and Python CGI programming, its time to acknowledge the basic python concepts. Further to any delay today in this article we will learn about the essence of the database, networking, and multithreading programming concerning Python.
Python Concepts –
A database system is a collection of tables that connects through columns. As every industry depends on a huge database, there is a Structured Query Language (SQL) which helps to access, create, and manage the stored data. Python encourages several databases such as MySQL, Sybase, Oracle, etc. Moreover, Python DB API is one of the most used packages that provide an application programming interface for database programming. Python concepts also encourage Data Manipulation Language (DML), Data Defenition Language (DDL), and Data Query Statements.
Advantages of Python for Database Programming
- Firstly, Python is a dynamic language to work on projects as well as faster than any of the other programming languages.
- Secondly, it encourages the Structured Query Language (SQL) cursors.
- Python can work on any platform because it is independent.
- It helps in the open and closed connection of the database so that to avoid an error.
- Lastly, Python DB API can work with several databases as well as it is easy to migrate and provide an application interface for database programming.
Also Read: Earn Money while pursuing Coding
Python DB-API (SQL-API)
It helps to write the Python scripts to gain access over any database engine. Many implementations are done by the Python DB-API such as-
- MySQL – MySQLdb
- Oracle – dc_oracle2 and cx_oracle
- PostgreSQL – psycopg, PyGresQL, and pyPgSQL
- DB2 – Pydb2
Python and MySQL
This combination helps to develop the database application. As soon as you start the MySQL on Linux, further to perform the database operation you need to acquire MySQLdb and Python DB-API.
Network programming is an important concept of Python, it is easy to write network programs in Python rather than any other programming languages like C++ or Java. Python libraries encourage the network protocols, encoding, decoding of data, and also other networking concepts.
Python Network Services
It has access to two network services –
- Low-Level Access – In this, the programmer can use and access the socket for OS using Python libraries. So that it allows the programmer to implement connection-oriented and connectionless protocols.
- High-Level Access – In this case, it has access to the application-level network protocols provided by the Python libraries.
What is Sockets?
A socket is a terminus in a flow of communication between the two programs and communication channels working over a network. The socket is created by socket API (Application Programming Interface). It can be implemented over other channels types such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Unix domain sockets, etc. Further for determining the connection between client and server, the socket uses protocols. These protocols are:
- Domain Name Servers (DNS)
- Internet protocol (IP) address
- File Transfer Protocol (FTP), etc.
Server Sockets Methods –
These methods are further used to manage the connections:
- listen(): set up and further start TCP listener
- bind(): bind-address such as host-name and the port number to the socket
- accept(): TCP client connection until connection appear
- connect(): set up TCP server connection
- send(): send TCP messages
- recv(): receive TCP messages
- sendto(): send UDP messages
- close(): close a socket
Python Internet Package
So here is the list of some important packages in Python Network Programming –
|Web Pages||80||httplib, urllib, xmlrpclib|
Multithreading also called Threading is a program that can create multiple threads to execute the process, so the task doesn’t block other running tasks. Consequently, it works as a hierarchy of tasks. Multithreading is a way to attain multitasking. Moreover, in this programming method threads concept is used.
Thread is a process or task that a computer program schedules for execution. Moreover, it is the lowest unit of processing that can be executed in an operating system (OS).
Thread Control Block (TCB)
It stores the overall information of a thread such as:
- Thread Identifier: It is a unique id (TID) that is given to every new thread.
- Stack pointer: In the process, it points to threads stack. Moreover, a stack consists of the local variables under the thread scope.
- Program counter: It stores the address of the current instruction in a register that is executed by a thread.
- Thread state: Ready/Start/Waiting/Running/Done, it can be any of them.
- Thread’s register set: These registers are given to threads for computation.
- Parent process pointer: It is where a thread lives. Therefore, it is a pointer to the Parent control block (PCB).
Multithreading in Python
The threading package provides an easy and automatic API in Python to generate multiple threads in a program. In creating a new thread, firstly we create an object of thread class. Further, it includes a target that reports the function executed by a thread, and args report the arguments that will be passed to the target function.
You have now seen much of what Python concepts have to offer and how they help in effectively building a program. Moreover, these concepts will help you gain good command over the Python programming language. Lastly, whatever you do, you now have the basic information about Python and its concept. As a result, it will help you to gain the confidence to write programs.